The blessing of offspring, however, is not completed by the mere begetting of them, but something else must be added, namely the proper education of the offspring. For the most wise God would have failed to make sufficient provision for children that had been born, and so for the whole human race, if He had not given to those to whom He had entrusted the power and right to beget them, the power also and the right to educate them. For no one can fail to see that children are incapable of providing wholly for themselves, even in matters pertaining to their natural life, and much less in those pertaining to the supernatural, but require for many years to be helped, instructed and educated by others. Now it is certain that both by the law of nature and of God this right and duty of educating their offspring belongs in the first place to those who began the work of nature by giving them birth, and they are indeed forbidden to leave unfinished this work and so expose it to certain ruin. But in matrimony provision has been made in the best possible way for this education of children that is so necessary, for, since the parents are bound together by an indissoluble bond, the care and mutual help of each is always at hand.
Since, however, We have spoken fully elsewhere on the Christian education of youth (Divini illius Magistri, 31 Dec. 1929), let Us sum it all up by quoting once more the words of St. Augustine: As regards the offspring it is provided that they should be begotten lovingly and educated religiously, (De Gen. ad litt., lib. IX, cap. 7, n. 12) -- and this is also expressed succinctly in the Code of Canon Law -- The primary end of marriage is the procreation and the education of children. (Cod. iur. can. c. 1013 §7)
By this same love it is necessary that all the other rights and duties of the marriage state be regulated as the words of the Apostle -- Let the husband render the debt to the wife, and the wife also in like manner to the husband (I Cor. vii, 3) -- express not only a law of justice but of charity.
Domestic society being confirmed, therefore, by this bond of love, there should flourish in it that order of love, as St. Augustine calls it. This order includes both the primacy of the husband with regard to the wife and children, the ready subjection of the wife and her willing obedience, which the Apostle commends in these words: Let women be subject to their husbands as to the Lord, because the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ is the head of the Church. (Eph. v, 22-23)
This subjection, however, does not deny or take away the liberty which fully belongs to the woman both in view of her dignity as a human person, and in view of her most noble office as wife and mother and companion; nor does it bid her obey her husbands every request if not in harmony with right reason or with the dignity due to wife; nor, in fine, does it imply that the wife should be put on a level with those persons who in law are called minors, to whom it is not customary to allow free exercise of their rights on account of their lack of mature judgment, or of their ignorance of human affairs. But it forbids that exaggerated liberty which cares not for the good of the family; it forbids that in this body which is the family, the heart be separated from the head to the great detriment of the whole body and the proximate danger of ruin. For if the man is the head, the woman is the heart, and as he occupies the chief place in ruling, so she may and ought to claim for herself the chief place in love.
Again, this subjection of wife to husband in its degree and manner may vary according to the different conditions of persons, place and time. In fact, if the husband neglect his duty, it falls to the wife to take his place in directing the family. But the structure of the family and its fundamental law, established and confirmed by God, must always and everywhere be maintained intact.
With great wisdom Our Predecessor Leo XIII, of happy memory, in the encyclical on Christian Marriage which We have already mentioned, speaking of this order to be maintained between man and wife, teaches:
*Acta Apostolicae Sedis 22 (1930)